UDC 334.1


member of the temporary scientific and creative association of the faculty. Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia
member of the Temporary Scientific and Creative Association of the Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia»


Relevance. For several decades, cluster policies have gained popularity in the world, uniting the state, business and science to increase the competitiveness of industries and regions, and increase innovative potential.
Objective. This article systematizes the transformation of the definition of the concept of a cluster over the 20th century, the contribution of the world’s leading researchers to the formation of this concept and analyzes the factors that determine the formation of a cluster. In addition, the types of proximity that affect the efficiency of the cluster are considered.
Result. The analysis allows us to determine the main features and principles of cluster formation, including the most successful factors that determine classifications, cluster efficiency, types of cluster proximity, as well as consider the transformation of clusters over a century and make an assumption about future trends in industrial policy.


cluster, concept, concentration, firm, type of proximity.